White, Hispanic, and Black students are removed from school for mandatorily reported violations at proportionate rates.
Only 3% of disciplinary actions were for MR violations; the rest were discretionary (97%) and not proportionate.
When compared with otherwise identical students (83 variables), Black students had a 31% higher likelihood of disciplinary action for the same offense.
RMJJ’s Research and Evaluation Initiative examines national and local data to examine racial disproportionality and disparity.
Percentage of CMS Students with Out-of-School Suspensions by Year and Race/Ethnicity
Are there variances in the overall trends in types of juvenile crime by race/ethnicity? Yes. In 2012, the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that Blacks committed a higher proportion of robberies and burglaries whereas Whites committed a higher proportion of weapons offenses (carrying, possessing, etc.), vandalism, and drug/alcohol violations. (http://www.ojjdp.gov/pubs/248513.pdf; Snyder & Mulako-Wantota Bureau of Justice Statistics, Arrest Data Analysis Tool.)
Can those variances explain the differences evident in the pie charts presented above? No. National scholars have explored several theories and mitigating variables including differential involvement (i.e., offense commission differences), income/socioeconomic status, family structure (e.g., single parent, grandparent, group home), and geotype (i.e., urban, suburban, rural) and others, yet the findings are consistent that these statistics cannot be explained by individuals’ behavior (Fabelo, T., Thompson, M. D., Plotkin, M., Carmichael, D., Marchbanks, M. P., & Booth, E. A. (2011). Breaking Schools’ Rules: A Statewide Study of how School Discipline Relates to Students’ Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement. New York, Council of State Governments Justice Center. http://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/ Breaking_ Schools_Rules_ Report_Final.pdf)
The Race Matters for Juvenile Justice Research, Evaluation, and Data-Based Decision Making Subcommittee guides RMJJ data definition and collection, evaluates RMJJ outcome data to tell the story of change, and supports the sharing and dissemination of collaborative partners’ and public racial disproportionality and disparity (RDD) data.
Research, Evaluation, and Data-Based Decision Making Subcommittee Chair:
Susan McCarter, UNC Charlotte